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A good transportation system And Modes Of Transportation ~ Advantages And disadvantages

A good transportation system is important to all societies for the movement of people raw material and goods. The more developed an economy, the more extensive its transport network, while poor transportation is both a cause and consequence of underdevelopment. 

MODES OF TRANSPORTATION:

 
Road transport 
Railways 
Water transport 
Air transport 

ROAD TRANSPORT 
 It is a dominant form of transport in the world. Approximately half of all passenger journeys in any country are taken by road. 12- Road are used by various forms of transportation such as trucks, automobiles, busses, motorcycles and bicycles.

ADVANTAGES OF ROAD TRANSPORT: HIGHLY FLEXIBLE: Roads can be used to transport many varieties of people and can go almost anywhere on a connected landmass. 

POINT TO POINT: cars, trucks, taxi, etc, door to door services (from a person’s to the garage at work). SAFE & CHEAPEST FORM: Road transportation is the safe and cheapest way to travel a short distance as compared to other modes of transportation. 

EMERGENCY SERVICE: Fire department, medical services, and other government agencies depend on an organized system of roads to provide emergency services to the public in time of need. 

SIMPLE TO ADMINISTRATE: Road transport operates on (mostly) static routes and schedules that can be centrally planned for qualified people. The system does not require a lot of skilled labor. 

AN INTERNAL PART OF THE ECONOMY: car manufacturing and road construction are major economic sectors, creating a large number of jobs in their sectors and many other sectors. 

DISADVANTAGES OF ROAD TRANSPORT: POLLUTION: the pollution generated by trucks, busses, cars, rickshaws is currently thought to be a major contributor to lung diseases. 

HIGH MAINTENANCE COST: Repair cost for roads are quite high. In the northern climate, removal is a major task. 

NOISE & POOR AESTHETICS: Roads are noisy and scan the landscape.

 OTHER DISADVANTAGES ARE 
High rate of accidents 
Traffic congestions 
Poor reliability.

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RAILWAYS 
Railways have developed dramatically in recent years, especially the use of high speed passenger trains. Rail based transportation system is mostly used in transporting heavy goods, through the construction of rail infrastructure is highly capital intensive, the operating expenses are lower than road based transportation.

ADVANTAGES OF RAILWAYS: 

SPEED: Rail has large capacity and a higher average operating speed over large distance.

EXCELLENT AT HANDLING PULSE DEMAND: when a large demand is suddenly placed the system, the large capacity vehicles are quite efficient at handling the demand. 

COMPETITIVENESS OVER LONG JOURNEY: Railway is only the convenient and economical means of transporting high bulk good to distance places. 

COMFORTABLE AND SAFE: Railway travel is comparatively comfortable and safe.

DISADVANTAGES OF RAILWAYS:
HIGH START-UP COST: the cost to get even a small of rail system up and running is very high. This is because of the high cost of the heavy-duty dedicated infrastructure requires to support train. COSTLY TO RUN: operations and maintenance costs of railway track are quite high. 

STATIC TO ROUTES: Rail linkages are only developed between main towns and timetable structure also limits the flexibility of the service. 

HIGH COST OF TRANSFERRING GOODS: it involves much time and cost in booking and taking delivery of goods through railways. Thus perishable goods are not conveniently transported through railways.

WATER TRANSPORT Both the sea and inland waterways (rivers, canals etc) are used for transportation. Goods transported from one place to another through waterways. Foreign trade is largely done through sea routes or waterways. The river navigation is also important in the internal part of the country. 

ADVANTAGES OF WATER TRANSPORT: 

LOW COST FOR TRANSFERRING GOODS: the obvious advantage of water transport is that it allows the movement of bulky goods over a long distance at a least. 

CHEAPEST TRANSPORT: it is the cheapest means of transport. Water transport does not require construction of routes and maintenance cost as seas have natural routes. 

WIDER SPACE: The capacity of goods transportation is much more as compared to rail and road transport the ships provide a wide space to place goods.

IMPORT & EXPORT: Foreign trade is largely depend on water transport as it the most economical ways to transport bulk cargoes.

DISADVANTAGES OF WATER TRANSPORT:
 
RESTRICTION: water transport is restricted to ports and inland water ways. 

SLOW TRAVEL SPEED: Speed of transportation is very slow in waterways, thus goods cannot be transported quickly. 

INCREASED TRANSFER COST: The goods are not transported to the place of business therefore the cost of transferring goods increased. Waterways are a half way transports services.

AIR TRANSPORT
Air is the fastest method for moving goods and people. It is mostly used for passenger travel but in recent years there has been a dramatic growth in the global air cargo business. It has doubled every ten years since nineteen seventy.

ADVANTAGES OF AIR TRANSPORT: EXCLUDED ROUTES: air transport does not need any extensive route construction as with road or rail transport, the routes are natural, similar to waterways. 

TIME SAVING TRANSPORT: This transport is ideal for fragile, perishable time sensitive shipments, and personal meetings. It is the quickest of all means of transportation. 

CONGESTON-FREE TRANSPORT: Air transportation covers large distance in shorter time. It is the fast, twenty four hour clearance traffic congestion-free transport.

DISADVANTAGES OF AIR TRANSPORT: 
MOST EXPENSIVE: it is comparatively expensive and door to door service is not usually included. 

UNCERTAINTY: Ground handling delays mechanical difficulties and bad weather may cause uncertainty in travelling. 

EXCLUDE VARIETY OF GOODS: Only less bulky products and high priced commodities could be transported airways.

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