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Non - Aligned Movement

 Non - Aligned Movement

Preamble

Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is an important world organization of the third world countries who do not wish to be aligned with any of the big powers. The NAM can be defined as:

“The international forum of the people of the third World who openly condemn and negate the lust for creating th e spheres of influence by the super powers and thus is an important and effective organ against Colonialism and imperialism.”

Reasons for the Formations of NAM

The World War II divided the world into two power blocs. The Western bloc being headed by U.S.A and the socialist bloc being governed by U.S.S.R.

These two superpowers involved in cold war creating great problems for the smaller nations and underdeveloped countries. The best policy for such states would have been to isolate themselves from the cold war of the super powers and fully concentrate on their economic, social and cultural uplift. NAM is an organization to help these nations to exist.

Bandung Conference

A meeting of those countries of the World who had no alignment with any super power was held in Bandung (Indonesia) on April 24, 1955. It was held to discuss the problems faced by Afro-Asian countries which was mainly to avoid the “Tug of War” of the super powers.

Main Features of NAM or Panjshila Principles

The declared principles of NAM are:

1.    Respect of Independence and Sovereignty

To respect each others sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence.

2.    Avoid Aggression

To refrain from acts of aggression or use of force against any states.

3.    Non interference

Non interference in others international affairs.

4.    Recognization of Equality and Liberty

To recognize the equality and liberty of all the nations.

5.    Peace

To live in a peaceful atmosphere.

Objective of NAM

1.      To promote good will and cooperation among the Afro-Asian countries.

2.      To consider social, economic and cultural problem of all participants.

3.      To consider the  problems like radicalism and colonialism.

4.      To access the position of Afro-Asian states and their people in the world.

Summit Conferences of Non - Aligned Movement

First Summit Conference

It was held at Belgrade (Yugoslavia) in 1961 in which 25 nations took part. The rules for obtaining membership of NAM were drafted.

Second Summit Conference

It was held at Cairo (Egypt) in 1964.

Third Summit Conference

It was held at Lusaka (Zambia) in 1970. 51 countries participated in this conference.

Fourth Summit Conference

It was held at Algiers (Algeria) in September 1973. In this conference the membership of Pakistan and China was opposed by India.

Fifth Summit Conference

It was held at Colombo (Srilanka) in August, 1976. 86 countries participated in this conference.

Opposition of radicalism and expansionism was declared. Arab cause was supported and USA was criticized for its annexation over Vietnam and Cuba.

Sixth Summit Conference

It was held at Havana (Cuba) on 3rd September, 1979 to 9th September, 1979. Pakistan attended this meeting for the first time as a member of NAM.

Seventh Summit Conference

It was held at Delhi (India) in March 1983. 101 countries participated in this conference. Arab cause, Palestine War, South African and Namibian struggle were discussed. USA was criticized for assisting Israel.

Eighth Summit Conference

It was held at Harare (Zimbabwe) on 1st September 1986. Afghanistan Problem, Iran Iraq War, Palestine and Namibian issue were discussed.

Ninth Summit Conference

It was held at Belgrade (Yugoslavia) on 4th September, 1989.

Pakistan – As the member of NAM

Pakistan joined NAM in 1979 although it participated actively in the 1st conference and attended the 5th conference as an observer. This was due to the fact that Pakistan was a member of SEATO and CENTO. Pakistan got rid of these organizations after the war with India (1965) and the debacle of East Pakistan (1971) when the sponsors of SEATO and CENTO did not came to help it.

Today, Pakistan participates actively in the programs of NAM and advocates affectively the problems relating to its member countries. Pakistan placed the case of foreign interference in Afghanistan in the Session of the 7th conference and was able to get most of the members confirm Pakistan stand on the problem and its equitable solution.

Conclusion

The NAM re-affirmed the inalienable right of all states to apply and develop their programs for peaceful uses of nuclear energy for economic and social development.

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