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Location and Climate of Pakistan

Location and Climate  of Pakistan

Geographical Location

Pakistan is situated in continent of Asia between 23.300 and 36.450 latitude (North) and 610 and 75.450 longitude (East). India is situated on Pakistan’s Eastern border, China lies to the North-East while Afghanistan is situated in North-West. In North, only a narrow belt of 15 miles in Afghanistan, called “Wakhan,” separates Pakistan from Russia. To the West lies Iran and in the South is the Arabian Sea.

Area and Population

The total area of Pakistan is 796096 sq.km and its population is about 130 million according to 1998 census.

Pakistan comprises of four provinces, viz, Sindh, Baluchistan, the Punjab and the N.W.F.P. Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan.

Importance of Pakistan’s Location

The following discussions throws light on the importance of Pakistan’s location:

1.    Situation

Pakistan is situated in a region of great economic, political and military importance. Among its neighbouring countries are China and Russia which are reckoned to be among the countries recognized as super powers.

2.    Karachi as an Important Port

The industrial progress of the Western countries depends upon the oil of the Gulf States. This oil is carried through Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. Karachi is an important port of the Arabian Sea. The Foreign policy of Pakistan can, therefore, affect the movement of oil.

3.    As a center of the Muslim World

Pakistan is situated in the center of the Muslim World. To the west of Pakistan, starting from Afghanistan and Iran lies a chain of Muslim countries passing through Asia and terminating at the Eastern coast of the Atlantic Ocean i.e the Middle East, Gulf and Africa. To the east of Pakistan, starting from Bangladesh lies another chain of Muslim countries while to the North there are six Muslim countries which gained independence from Russia in 1991.

4.    Control Over Warm Water

The seas of Russia are mostly snow capped and are not fit for navigation for the larger part of the year. To take active part in international trade, Russia dreams to have control over the warm water of the Indian Sea. But Pakistan is a hurdle in its way and thus enjoys an important position in the scene of international trade.

5.    Position in Third world countries

Pakistan is a great supporter of the unity of the third World countries.

Climate of Pakistan

Climate is an average or general conditions of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, rainfall of a place. The climate of Pakistan, on the whole is dry and extreme. It means that the  summers are  extremely hot and winters are extremely cold, and there is a little rainfall during the year.

Seasons of Pakistan

There are the following four seasons in Pakistan:

1.      Summer – May to mid September

2.      Winter – November to February

3.      Autumn – September to November

4.      Spring – March and April

Climatic Regions of Pakistan

In Pakistan climate varies from place to place. Pakistan may be divided into the following four regions according to climate:

The North and North Western Mountainous Area

This region consists of the North and the North-Western Mountainous areas. This region has a very severe winter and the temperature falls below the freezing point. In this area the winter seasons remains from six to eight months. On the other hand, summers of this region are very pleasant.

The Upper Indus Plain

Below the Northern Mountainous Area is the upper Indus plain. In this area the summer is very hot. The months of May, June and first week of July are very hot because in this period there is no rainfall. However, the climate here becomes pleasant when rain falls in July. The winter season of the Upper Indus Plains is very pleasant but it does not last long.

The Coastal Areas and the Lower Indus Valley

The temperature of the coastal areas and the lower Indus valley does not rise due to sea land breeze. In this region rain does not fall, however due to blowing of sea breeze humidity is found in the air. Sea breeze keeps the climate pleasant. There is not much difference in the temperature of different months in this region.

The Plateau of Baluchistan and the Thar Desert

In summer, the temperature of the plateau of Baluchistan and the Thar desert rises. Most of the mountainous regions of Baluchistan are dry and hot. The winter season is very severe in Baluchistan and sometimes snow falls in certain parts.

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