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Role of Muslim League in the Creation of Pakistan

Role of Muslim League in the Creation of Pakistan

Introduction

Anti partition agitation staged by Hindus made it clear to the Muslims that they must have a separate political organization. In December, 1906 Muslim Leaders from all over the Sub Continent assembled in Dacca to attend the All India Mohammadan to establish a central political organization for Muslims called the “All India Muslim League.” The Muslim League was established with the primary aim of protecting the political rights of Indian Muslims and presenting their demands and problems before the British Government.

Foundation of Muslim League

The success of Simla Deputation made it imperative for the Muslims of the Sub Continent to have their own political organization. In 1906, the Muslims of India founded a political party of their own known as “All India Muslim league.”

Causes of Muslim League’s Foundation

The partition of Bengal by the British Government in 1905 greatly embittered the relations between Hindus and Muslims. The partition ensured a number of political benefits for the Muslim but the Hindus reacted towards the partitions of Bengal in a hostile and violent manner. This made it clear that the Hindus were not willing to give Muslims their due share. This violent protest of the Hindus convinced the educated Muslims that they could be redeemed only if they created their own political force and their own leadership.

Aims of Muslim League

The aims of Muslim League are given below:

1.      To safe guard and protect Muslim interests and to convey their demands to British Government.

2.      To create a feeling of respect and good will in Muslim for the British Government.

3.      To promote brotherhood between the different nations of India.

Role of Muslim League

The role played by All India Muslim League in the creation of Pakistan is summarized under:

1.    Minto – Morley Reform Act – 1909

The  Muslims under the able leadership of the Muslim league now began to press for the separate electorate for the Muslims. The authorities accepted their demand in an Act, called “The Minto – Morley Reform Act”, in 1909.

2.    Lucknow Pack – 1916

In November 1916, two committees of League and Congress met at Calcutta and drew an agreement draft of political reform for India called “Lucknow Pact.” Through this pact the Congress recognized the separate status of Muslims.

3.    Simon Commission

In 1927, Simon Commision was sent to India under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon to settle Muslim Hindu differences. It was rejected because there was no Indian member on the commission.

4.    Jinnah’s Fourteen Points – 1929

The Quaid-e-Azam refused to accept the Nehru – report. In order to protect the Muslim’s point of view on the political issues of South Asia, he prepared a draft of guiding principles consisting of 14 points, popularly known as “Jinnah’s Fourteen Points.”

5.    Allama Iqbal’s Allahabad Address – 1930

In 1930, in his presidential address at annual session of League at Allahabad, Iqbal proposed the formation of a separate Muslim State by combining Northern and South-Western Muslim majority region in Sub Continent.

6.    Day of Deliverance

On 22nd December, Muslim League observed “Deliverance Day” to thank God for resignation of Congress Ministers.

7.    Pakistan Resolution - 1940

The attitude of the Hindus made it clear that the Hindus and the Muslims were two separate nations. On March 23rd, at the annual session of Muslim League at Lahore, the famous resolution, commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution was passed. It was presented by Maulvi Fazlul Haq. Quaid-e-Azam said in his address:

“By all means Muslims are one nation and they need a separate homeland where they could live their spiritual, cultural, econmical, social and political lives independently.”

8.    Cripps Mission - 1942

Sir Stafford Cripps was sent by the British Government to India, to discuss with Indian leaders, the future Indian Constitutions. His proposal was rejected by both the Congress and the League. The Congress characterized them as “a post-dated cheque on a failing bank.” Jinnah said that:

“If these were accepted “Muslims would become a minority in their majority provinces as well.”

9.    Gandhi Jinnah Talks - 1944

Gandhi held talks with Jinnah to discuss about the future of India, but no fruitful results came out of it because Gandhi did not accept Muslims as a separate nation.

Louis Feisher wrote:

“The wall between Jinnah and Gandhi was the Two Nation Theory.”

10.           Simla Conference - 1945

Lord Wavell called a conference at Simla. The conference failed to achieve any purpose due to one sided attitude of Lord Wavell. In this conference, Quaid-e-Azam made it crystal clear that the Muslim League can represent Muslims of India.

11.           General Elections – 1945 -1946

Elections for the central and provincial assemblies were held in 1945-1946 in which Muslim League won 30 seats of central legislative meant for Muslims and 430 seats out of 495 in the provincial legislative. Quaid-e-Azam said on this occasion:

“I have no doubt now in the acheivement of Pakistan. The Muslims of India told the world what they want. No power of world can topple the opinion of 10 crore Muslims of India.”

12.           Cabinet Mission - 1946

Cabinet Mission visited India in 1946 and submitted its recommendations to the Britishers. As a result Interium Government was formed but Congress and League couldn’t co-operate amongst themselves.

13.           Delhi Convention - 1946

Quaid-e-Azam called a convention of all the Muslim League members at Delhi. At the convention every member took the pledge to under go any danger for the attainment of national goal of Pakistan.

14.           3rd June Plan - 1947

Lord Mount Batten prepared the plan for transference of power according to the wish of people. He emphasized on the partition of the country and told that it was the only solution of the Indian political deadlock. Both League and Congress accepted the plan.

Conclusion

Muslim League thus got its object and Pakistan was created on 14th August 1947. In short we can say that the creation of Pakistan is the result of the ceaseless efforts of the Muslim League and the great heroes which dedicated their lives for the creation of Pakistan. If there were be no Muslim League the fate of the Muslims of the Sub Continent could not be changed.

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