11th Class XI English Chapter 07 Science And Scientists


Q:1: What does a man in the street think of science?
A lay man has little and imperfect knowledge about the definition and concept of science. He has a very simple but raw idea in this regard. He thinks that only a few subjects or branches of study are included in science, such as Chemistry, Astronomy and Biology. 

Q:2: What is the difference between scientific and unscientific work?
Sometimes, a scientist gives his opinion about some book, project or process by calling it scientific or unscientific.
By declaring a work unscientific, he means to point out the following defects or flows in it.
* It is wrong, inexact and inaccurate.
* It is not in proper order and system.
* The result is derived without solid and sound evidence or proof.
* The result is influenced by the personal views or liking and disliking of the author.
It means the scientific work must be free from the defects or demerits mentioned above. A scientific work should possess the following qualities or merits.
* It should be correct, exact and accurate.
* It must have proper arrangement, order or system.
* The result must be based on solid and sound evidence.
* The result must be objective and unaffected by personal prejudiced. Its main aim should be discovery of facts.
Q:3. When and how did science begin to grow?
What were the factors which contributed to the growth of modern science?

The seventeenth century is regarded as the era of dawn of modern science. Before that time, people had no scientific attitude of mind and they tried to acquire knowledge in a random, irregular and improper sort of way. As a result, knowledge made little progress and insignificant advancement. People believed and accepted one another’s views. After that, the period of progress and knowledge began. There came a revolution in the thinking of people. They started searching for knowledge in a systematic way. They confirmed the facts by doing practical test or experiments. As a result, science began to make advancement at a fast pace. 

Q:4.What do you know by the following phrases?
The man in the street:
It means a lay man, ordinary man.
Jumping to conclusion:
It means to draw the result without proof.
Personal prejudices:
It means personal views or liking.
It means “a aim”, “a thing” and “to oppose or disapprove.”
It means something clear and simple.
It means a practical test to confirm facts.
Random sort of way:
It means irregular and improper manner.
It means physical proof or reasoning.

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